当前位置 : 首页 > 防务观察 > 军事译文 > 内容

战斗行动中的反破坏与反恐怖斗争

来源:本站稿件 责编:ldzldz 作者:知远/Forest 时间:2009-04-09

译自:俄罗斯《军事思想》

 作者:I.N. Vorobyov

编译:知远/Forest


对最近十年的局部战争和武装冲突经验的分析有助于揭示现代战斗行动中破坏与恐怖活动所使用方法和技术的发展趋势,有助于为大规模、区域与局部战争以及武装冲突提供一些新的反破坏与反恐怖的方法。
举例来说,我们并不能够排除大规模战争可以由敌人以特殊的破坏和恐怖活动的方式开始的可能性。很有可能的是,这样的一场战争将会作为所谓的信息战争的一部分进行,这样就在对峙状态下形成了一个永久的破坏前线(“第五个纵队”),向敌人发送虚假信息误导敌人,以降低其武装力量的作战效能。
局部战争和武装冲突的经验表明特殊的破坏和恐怖活动能以不同级别进行,其组成部分可能是破坏和恐怖作战,也可能是分散的破坏行动,或者是恐怖袭击。
与第二次世界大战不同,现代的战斗行动倾向于使用大量的兵力、兵器,旨在影响敌人进行破坏和恐怖活动的意图。除了传统的资源之外,大量的非传统的武器也得到了使用。非传统的武器倾向于影响公众舆论、人的思想、潜意识和行为,以及心理的状态、感觉和健康。这些的武器,首先能包括信息和心理影响手段;精神药物;技术性精神武器;精神药物武器。
精神武器的使用可以有效对付破坏活动。这种武器是以通过控制药品、麻醉剂和毒药浓度来对敌军事人员产生所需的心理反应、不良状态和行为的方式改变人类神经系统中生化特性机制为基础的。这些影响精神的物质可以以喷剂、粉末的形式散布到指挥所、保障部队、导弹发射台、火炮阵地及其它地域。
技术性精神武器是以一定频率和强度的电磁辐射影响人类大脑电波的机制为基础的。各种不同类型的产生器,共鸣器和听觉装置能被作为辐射源,因为它们可以引起恐惧、头昏眼花、恶心、痛苦和心智的混乱;它们能使人恐慌而且产生精神运动功能性障碍。应该注意到超低频率能很容易地穿透庇护所的墙壁和装甲车的装甲。
身体—心理的武器主要以微波的电磁波动为基础,可以破坏敌人的通信系统和计算机网络,也可以破坏战斗车辆和运输系统设备的电子系统。
首先,应该说这些非传统的器具往往压制人类抵抗的意志;他们被设计用来降低人的智力,影响与控制军事人员和平民的行为,使它们对敌人最不利。这些武器甚至也能用在使用常规武装力量阶段之前,以达成政治、经济或军事目的,这种行动可以看作心理破坏活动。
电子破坏作为另一种破坏活动被广泛地用于局部战争和武装冲突中。其目标就是进入敌人自动化指挥和武器控制系统以从内部破坏它。这种类型的破坏行动在1967年埃及和以色列之间的六日战争期间得到了使用。在完成了对埃及军队的指挥控制系统的战前侦察,尤其是空军和防空系统指挥控制系统的侦察之后,以色列军队从战争开始的第一分钟,埃及军队飞机起飞之后不久就夺取了主动权。知道了敌人的频率和密码, 他们迅速进入敌方电台网络,通过向他们发送虚假指令误导地面指挥所与飞机。当评估战争的结果的时候,前以色列国防部长M. Dayan写道:“以色列情报部门的重要性(换句话说,其破坏活动——作者)一点也不比空军或装甲部队的重要性逊色。 (1)
考虑到电子战范围的扩大,当今电子破坏活动的范围也更加宽泛,这些活动不仅包括电子干扰,也包括电磁与定向能装备的应用、反辐射武器以及破坏敌人控制系统中的信息的手段。
从破坏的目的来讲,可以使用各种不同的计算机病毒,这可以造成敌人指挥控制网络彻底瘫痪,而且如果病毒进入现代自动化通信站,这可以导致大范围的连接故障与通信中断。破坏敌人控制系统中的信息的手段可能包括用任意语言编写一系列指令的后门软件虫、一些微型程序指令、函数与远程通信消息结合体等等。
电子破坏效率可以通过电磁武器得到极大的提高。电子装置与火力摧毁武器的结合催生了新的电子与火力破坏样式。
这种破坏样式是基于对电子与火力对敌军用电子系统作战效果的多用途应用,这样就可以迅速摧毁或阻碍指挥单位对火箭、火炮、导弹、防空系统的指挥控制流程。这种破坏活动可以通过被动或反应式的电子干扰(掩蔽、模仿、联合、保护、跟踪目标及其它电子活动)与选择性的精确打击结合进行。这样的破坏容易产生奇袭的效果,他们主要针对敌人对抵抗毫无准备。
在可以预见的未来,一个像太空攻击这样新的破坏活动样式有可能出现,这就意谓着在武装斗争中出现了另一种新的科技突破。以破坏为目的将空间作为“战场”环境必将导致进攻与防御部队最重要的设备和装置将暴露在敌方空间情报侦察范围与进攻性武器射程之内。这将会使实施部队防护行动以避免此类破坏行动变得更加复杂。
大量破坏和恐怖活动——不仅在地面,也在空中、空间、海洋上和可以经过空气传播,这意谓着需要我们重新考虑现代战斗行动的特点。根据这些活动的本质,从新的时空度量角度看,一个不可见的但永久存在的反破坏与反恐怖斗争战线出现了,它具有其特殊的内在特点——敌人影响战斗行动顺序、力量组成、后勤部署、通信设施及这些作战要素日益增加的脆弱性的能力正在增加。
这些新的战役和战术条件需要我们针对大规模、区域和局部战争以及武装冲突中的破坏和恐怖活动样式与方法的发展采取新的应对措施。以此为目的就急切需要我们建立一个特别的组织部门,以研发军事训练的新理念、安排资源、起草对抗敌人破坏和恐怖编队(STF)的条令、手册和指南。
我们相信解决这个紧急的问题的第一步可能是创造性的——在俄罗斯武装力量中建立特殊的反恐怖中心 (ATC),它可能在安排针对战时反破坏和反恐怖军事训练方面成为一个“驱动力产生器”。
事实上,创立反恐怖中心的观念一点也不新奇。这种类似的中心在美国有,而且在联合国安全理事会也有。在2002年,反恐怖中心(独联体反恐怖中心)在俄罗斯建立。它的运作非常成功:尤其,他们一直充实一个关于恐怖份子组织的数据库,对其在独联体及国外的活动进行纪录。在该组织的保护之下,进行了许多的涉及多种武装力量的合同战术演习。尤其是,在中亚、乌克兰、吉尔吉斯斯坦、哈萨克斯坦和塔吉克斯坦进行了这样的演习。
关于俄罗斯反恐怖中心的建立,我们认为其功能应该比独联体反恐怖中心的功能更宽泛一些。它应该不只是预测国内和国际的政治、军事环境,揭示可能出现的破坏和恐怖威胁,还应该对如何应对这些威胁提出建议。反恐怖中心的目标包括起草规范军队在战争初期和期间内部防卫系统的相关文件;为了进行反破坏与反恐怖如何进行训练与准备;应该采用什么样的方式与样式来压制敌方破坏与恐活动;确定合成武装部分队的作用与目标,及其在特种作战行动中的组织结构;建立什么样的指挥控制系统,如何组织交互与武装力量支援
考虑到参与反破坏与反恐怖斗争的各种不同资源,建立反恐怖中心及其交互与支援系统是一个相当复杂的过程。因此我们建议与该问题相关的措施应该被区分为两个组织。第一个组织的工作可以包括:确定反恐怖中心的结构,确定与建立反恐怖中心相关的日期和程序,制定控制与管理相互问题的解决方案;确定下属部队以及与所有武装力量的交互;确定合成部队、分队与单元(战斗单元、侦察与探测单元、进攻单元、阻击单元)的任务,以及与武警部队、边防部队、区域防御部队进行交互的任务。
第二组织的工作可能包括:使反破坏、战斗人员、攻击和攻击分队、侦察探测分队保持充分警戒状态;进行战场上战术运用的转换;战斗演习检验,组织部队训练;联合战术演习、首长与参谋作业、参谋训练,计算机模拟演习、演示以及学术与经验交流会议。
依我们之见,作为行动的控制权威的反恐怖中心的结构基础应由情报和分析的中心和联合作战委员会组成。而联合作战委员会应相应地包括一些代表不同武装力量的特谴分队与协调分队以及指挥分队。指挥分队主要负责管理行动、作战资源、辐射武器、生化防护以及工程与后勤保障的指挥分队。
反恐怖中心主要活动可能包括下列的方面:协调、科学与理论研究、管理、组织、科学与技术研究、支援。至于协调方面,应重点集中于与军队战备与动员、方案协调、联合制定与实施演习、战斗与参谋训练演习、军事科学会议、作战模拟与训练相关的组织机构活动的协调。反恐怖中心的科学和理论活动应该包括:调查、分析、总结局部战争与武装冲突中的反破坏与反恐怖行动,为指挥官研究制定相应的建议;着眼于完善与改进对抗破坏与恐怖编队作战与战术的样式与方法、战斗计划与控制措施、控制系统与各种保障,研究破坏与恐怖活动的发展趋势;起草制定相关的指南、手册与说明书、士兵指南、教育训练材料。反恐怖中心的组织任务之一将包括确定参加反破坏与反恐怖行动特殊单位组成与结构。这些单位需要在战斗行动中的出现危机情形时迅速做出反应,以避免破坏份子和恐怖份子编队进入该地区或其他地区,需要缩小其行动范围减弱其行动影响,需要包围、分割与消灭破坏与恐怖份子。事实上,这些单位应该当作一种军事特谴队。
对于军事特谴队组织和建立的一般能力需求归纳起来有下列几项:确保其具有与敌人破坏与恐怖编队相同的机动能力;其必须具有能够在战场阵地中应用各种不同的战术方法与破坏与恐怖编队进行斗争的能力,具有抗击现代打击手段的能力,其中包括空间打击武器、高精确武器, 火箭与火炮火武器系统、导弹发射装置、导弹射击单位、以及基于身体规律的精神性、非致命性武器。这些军事特谴队必须具备大多数军兵种的战斗能力,如空降兵部队的空中地面机动能力,所有武装力量的机动性与打击能力,炮兵与航空兵部队的火力打击能力,以及在有海战的时候具有海军的战斗能力。他们主要应被建设成一支多用途的部队,也就是说,他们应该具有在大规模、区域与局部战争以及武装冲突的各种行动中履行任务的能力。将军事特谴队与机械化步兵、装甲兵部队一起使用,在国内战线中与武警部队和边防部队一起使用将会拓展他们的战斗使用范围。
特谴队由于结构高度精干合成,且一直处于警戒状态随时准备进行立即行动,所以必须针对敌人破坏与恐怖分析的行动具备迅速进行空运、地面、海面机动的能力。在对抗破坏与恐怖编队的战斗行动中可以应用各种不同的打击武器和资源。最具机动性,反应最迅速的装备是战斗航空兵,尤其是SU-25战斗机可以进行选择性打击。最重要的是根据接受到的目标位置信息,SU-25战斗机再进一步进行补充侦察,然后进行打击。然而,SU-25战斗机的作战半径是有限的。
消灭小型破坏与恐怖组织的不可替代的手段是使用Mi-8和Mi-24攻击直升飞机进行打击。然而,不幸地的是它们无法对位于建筑物、森林、峡谷、沟壑的小型破坏与恐怖组织进行全面的搜索和侦察行动。因此,非常需要研制新型的装备有全天候侦察和目标指示设备的多用途直升飞机。武装直升飞机和战斗直升飞机也非常需要增强打击能力与生存能力。
为了在打击破坏与恐怖活动中保持的主动性,非常有必要利用可以遂行多种任务的无人飞机以及远离机场的定位飞机(“蚊子飞行器”)。当需要在敌破坏与恐怖编队进行准备的最初阶段对其进行摧毁与侦察的时候,可以使用远程飞机——基本上可用于打击破坏与恐怖编队占据的飞机场。
火箭和火炮部队也是打击敌破坏与恐怖编队非常有效的武器。装备主要地包括高精度火箭系统、自行火炮和多管火箭炮系统。然而,为了确保对敌人的破坏行动和恐怖攻击更有效,应该增加火箭和火炮部队的战斗潜能。这可以通过增加合成部队中火箭和火炮作战单元的数量,也可以通过增强火炮武器系统的性能,其中方法之一就是为122毫米榴弹炮研制电磁炮发射装置和新弹药,以使其在50-70 km的射程内进行射击,同时也要为152毫米榴弹炮和120毫米火炮研制制导弹药。
除了火力武器之外,反破坏与反恐怖调遣行动也可以包括各军兵种预备队、机动队以及在极短时间内到达敌地域进行打击的攻击直升飞机。巧妙的调遣行动将会获得与保持对抗破坏与恐怖编队斗争的主动权,破坏其作战计划, 增强压制其行动的能力,积极应对困难的战斗态势。
当评估各个军兵种作战部分队的战斗和行动能力的时候,应该注意到现有的组织,尤其在战场作战的时候,在对抗破坏和恐怖份子斗争中执行任务还不够充分、不够有效。尤其是,步兵营的火力射击能力应得到增强,这样它才能独立地打击破坏与恐怖份子,而不必依赖于主力部队。可以通过调整其炮兵连的编制装备来增强其火力,使炮兵连拥有1个82 毫米迫击炮排,2个120 毫米迫击炮排,1个独立122毫米自行炮排。此外,在营编制内增加战斗支援连也是有利于作战的。这些的战斗支援连可以包括榴弹发射排、喷火枪排、机枪排和防空排,以及一个普通的战斗工程排。就射击武器来说,应该被说步兵部队拥有相当有效的此类武器了。
为了使步兵营可以发现敌破坏与恐怖份子,营应该拥有一个装备有先进侦察设备的、训练有素的侦察分队,以为指挥员和火力部队提供信息。此外,在营之中应该包含一个常规空中控制人员。
狙击手在对抗敌破坏与恐怖份子斗争中扮演着重要角色。他们的任务包括下列各项:防止破坏份子进入军事设施,消灭可能出现的目标,如狙击手、无线操作技师、机枪手、迫击炮炮手、步兵以及工兵等。在敌人破坏和恐怖份子中也有狙击手,因此也可以包括反狙击的情况。
至于对抗电子破坏行动,应该被说其效率将会依赖于电子技术的发展,尤其是依赖于大规模电子改进项目,在该项目中应重点研制综合自动系统,包括电子侦察与干扰装置、不同种类的可以自动调整参数的自适应系统,一次性干扰发射器等等。
Countersabotage and antiterrorist struggle in a combat operation
I.N. Vorobyov
The analysis of the experience of local wars and armed conflicts of recent decades makes it possible to reveal certain tendencies in the development of methods and techniques used in subversive and terrorist activities in a modern combat operation (action), and to offer a number of new approaches in counter-sabotage and antiterrorist struggle in large-scale, regional and local wars and in armed conflicts.
For instance, it cannot be ruled out that a large-scale war could start with a special subversive and terrorist campaign carried out by the enemy. Most likely, such a war will be waged as a part of a so-called information war so as to create a permanent subversive front ("fifth column") inside the confronting state, to misinform and mislead the opponent, to weaken its armed forces' military efficiency.
The experience of local wars and armed conflicts shows that a special subversive and terrorist campaign can be carried out in several stages, with its components being subversive and terrorist operations and separate subversive acts and terrorist attacks.
Unlike World War II, modern combat operations tend to involve a wider arsenal of forces and equipment aimed at affecting the enemy in subversive and terrorist purposes. In addition to traditional resources, non-traditional instruments can be used. They tend to affect the public opinion, human consciousness, subconsciousness and behavior, as well as psychological condition, feelings and health. Such instruments can include, first of all, means of informational and psychological influence; psychotropic drugs; techno-psychological weapons; psychotropic weapons.
The use of psychotropic weapons could become a productive instrument of subversive activities. This kind of weapon is based on the mechanism changing the biochemical characteristics of the processes occurring in a human nervous system by administering pharmacological preparations, narcotic substances and poisons in the concentrations causing required mental reactions, inadequate condition and behavior of the military personnel. Such groups of psychotropic substances could be applied in combat operations: they can be dispersed as aerosols and powders in the areas where control units, support echelons, missile launchers, artillery sites etc. are located.
Techno-psychological weaponry is based on the mechanism modifying the bioelectric processes in the brain of a human being by affecting him with electromagnetic radiations of certain frequency and intensity. As sources of such radiations, various kinds of generators, resonators and acoustic devices can be applied, since they are capable of causing feelings of fear, dizziness, nausea, painful sensations and mental disorders; they can make people panicking and create psychomotor malfunctions. It should also be noted that ultralow frequencies can easily penetrate the walls of shelters and armored vehicles.
Somatic-and-psychological weapons are based on the application of microwave electromagnetic fluctuations capable of destroying the enemy's communication system and computer networks and demolishing the electronic systems of combat vehicles and transport facilities.
It should be said that non-traditional instruments, first of all, tend to suppress the human will to resistance; they are designed to zombie the people's mentality and program the behavior of the military personnel and the population, making it most favorable for the enemy. Such instruments can also be used to achieve political, economic and military purposes even prior to the stage when military power is applied, which can actually be viewed as psychological subversive activities.
Electronic subversions represent another type of sabotage activities that have been quite widely applied in local wars and armed conflicts. Their aim is to break into the enemy's automated command and weapon control system and to destroy it from the inside. A subversive act of this kind was organized during the Six Day War between Egypt and Israel (1967). Having accomplished a pre-operational reconnaissance of the troop command and control system in the Egyptian Army, in particular in the Air Force and the Air Defense System, the Israelis took the initiative just from the first minutes of the war, shortly after the Egyptian planes took off. Being aware of the enemy's frequencies and codes, they immediately got connected into its radio networks so as to mislead both the ground command posts and the planes by initiating false commands to them. While evaluating the results of this war, the former Israeli Defense Minister M. Dayan wrote: "The role the Israeli intelligence has played (in other words, its subversive actions.--Authors.) was not at all less than the role the Air Force and the armored troops have been playing." (1)
In view of electronic warfare enhancement, the range of electronic subversive activities could be even wider nowadays, and these activities can include not only electronic jamming, but also the application of electromagnetic and directed energy radiation devices, anti-radiation homing weapons and means having special programmable impacts on the information circulating within the enemy's control systems.
In subversive purposes, various computer viruses can be used, which could result in complete failure of computer networks in the enemy's control systems. And if a virus is infiltrated into a computer of a modern automatic telephone station, this could lead to extensive connection failures or to mutilated calls. One of the programmable impact tools could also involve a software bug representing a set of commands initiated in any programming language, a number of microprogram instructions, function characters and combinations in telecommunication messages, etc.
Electronic subversion efficiency could be sharply increased with the occurrence of electro-magnetic weapons. As a result of a combination of electronic impact tools and fire damage devices, a new form of technological subversion--electronic and fire weaponry subversive activities--is now emerging.
This sort of subversion is based on multipurpose utilization of electronic and fire weaponry impact on the most significant electronic systems in the enemy's forces so as to immediately destroy (block) the control units operating its rocket and fire weapon system, missile firing installations and air defense system. This can be achieved through passive and reflection jamming (being of masking, imitating, combined, protecting, aiming, sliding, etc. character) in a combination with selective high-precision attacks. Such subversions tend to imply a surprise effect and they are aimed at the enemy's unpreparedness to resist.
In the foreseeable future, a new form of subversive activities, such as aerospace attacks, may emerge, which would mean another technological breakthrough in the armed struggle. The use of the space as a "battlefield" environment in subversive purposes will inevitably lead to a situation when the most significant facilities and installations of tactical offensive and defensive forces will be within the reach of the enemy's aerospace intelligence and offensive weapons. This will make it much more complicated to arrange adequate protection of troops from such sort of subversive acts.
Mass display of sabotage and terrorist actions--not only on the ground but also in the air, in the space, on the sea and through air transmission means--requires us to give a new consideration to the character of a modern combat operation (action). In their substance, a new spatiotemporal measurement is emerging: an invisible, but a permanent front of countersabotage and antiterrorist struggle with its specific inherent features: the enemy's expanding capabilities in influencing all the elements of the operational order of battle, composition of forces, logistic installations and communication facilities, their increasing vulnerability.
These new operative and tactical conditions require new approaches to the development of the forms and methods of countersabotage and antiterrorist struggle in large-scale, regional, local wars and armed conflicts. With this purpose it would be expedient to establish a special governing body which could develop the concept of military training and resource arrangement and draft special documents, manuals and instructions related to the struggle against subversive and terrorist formations (STF) of the enemy.
We believe that the primary step in solving this urgent problem could be creation, within the RF Armed Forces, of a special Antiterrorist Center (ATC)--a sort of a "driving generator" in performing all the military training arrangements aimed at the struggle against the acts of sabotage and terrorism at wartime.
In fact, the idea of creating an antiterrorist center is not at all new. A similar center exists in the USA, and there is another one at the UN Security Council. In 2002, an antiterrorist center was established in the CIS (CIS ATC). It has been functioning rather successfully: in particular, it has been filing a specialized database on terrorist organizations, on their activities both in the countries of CIS and abroad. Under its aegis, a number of combined tactical maneuvers were held involving the CIS collective forces. In particular, such maneuvers were held in Central Asia, in Ukraine, in the territories of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan.
As for the RF Armed Forces Antiterrorist Center creation, we believe that its functions should be somewhat wider than those of the CIS ATC. It should not only predict the political and military environment in the country and worldwide, reveal possible sabotage and terrorist threats, but it should also develop practical proposals as to how to counteract those. One of the ATC objectives involves the drafting and formulation of corresponding documents regulating how the internal defense system of the army field forces should look like both in the beginning and during the war; what resources should be trained and prepared for this purpose; what forms and methods of neutralizing sabotage and terrorist actions are to be applied; what should be the role and goals of combined armed forces (units) and formations of other power structures in special operations; what the system of their command and control should look like, and how the interaction and support of the armed forces (troops) should be organized.
Creation of the ATC and establishment of the interaction and support system with respect to various resources participating in the struggle against terrorist and subversive formations is a rather complicated process. Therefore we suggest that all the measures related to this problem should be divided into two groups. The first group could include: ATC structure determination, fixing the dates and procedures with respect to ATC creation, solution of principal control and management related issues; endorsement of subordination and the order of all-arms forces interaction; determination of the tasks to be given to combined troops, their units and divisions (fighter, search and detecting, attack and assault, blockade), as well as to the interacting groups involving Interior Ministry troops, combat units within the Frontier Service of the FSB and area defense units.
The second group of measures could include: bringing the countersabotage, fighter, attack and assault, search and detecting forces and groups to an adequate alert status; their shifting to the tactical employment battlefield; combat shakedown, force training completion; joint tactical maneuvers, command and staff exercises, staff trainings, computer games, demonstrations, scientific and practical conferences.
In our opinion, the structural base of the ATC, as an operational control authority, should consist of the Intelligence and Analytical Center and the Joint Operational Directorate. The latter, in turn, could include task forces represented by different armed services and interacting power structures, control units regulating hard-kill actions, warfare resources, means of radiation, chemical and biological protection, as well as engineering, technical and logistic support.
The main areas of ATC activities may include the following aspects: regulatory, scientific and theoretical, administrative, organizational, scientific and technical, supporting. As for the regulatory area, it should be focused on coordinating power structures' activities related to the development of military combat readiness and mobilization plans, program coordination, joint development and handling of combat exercises, combat-and-staff training exercises, military science conferences, war games and trainings. Scientific and theoretical activities of the ATC are supposed to include: investigation, generalization and analysis of countersabotage and antiterrorist actions in local wars and armed conflicts and elaboration of respective proposals and recommendations for commanders, staffs and armies; development of trends aimed at perfection and improvement of operative and tactical forms and methods of the struggle against subversive and terrorist formations (STF), combat planning and control techniques, control system and all-out support development; drafting of manuals, handbooks and instructions, soldiers' handling guides, education materials related to the given subjects. One of the organizational missions of ATC will involve determination of the composition and structure of the special units engaged in the fighting against terrorism and acts of sabotage. Such units are required to ensure prompt response to an occurring crisis situation during combat operations so as to prevent subversive and terrorist formations from landing into this or that area, localize and mitigate their actions, block them with subsequent encirclement, splitting and elimination. In fact, this is supposed to be some kind of a special army task force.
The general requirements regarding the army task force organization and establishment are reduced to the following: it is supposed to ensure that its maneuverable qualities are equal to those of the enemy's STFs; it must be in the position to apply various tactical methods in the struggle against STF, to resist modern means of destruction including space striking weapons, high-precision weapons, rocket-and-fire weapon systems, missile firing installations, missile fire units, weapons based on new physical principles, such as psychotropic, nonlethal and incendiary weapons. These special task force groups must integrate most of the service branches' fighting qualities: air and ground mobility of airborne troops, striking and maneuverable qualities of all-arms forces, striking and fire power potential of artillery and aviation forces, and during naval operations--fighting qualities of marine units. They must be formed primarily as multiple purpose troops, i.e. they should have the ability to fulfill their missions in all kinds of operations in large-scale, regional and local wars and in armed conflicts. Application of the special task force groups along with motorized rifle forces and armored units, and in an internal confrontation--in cooperation with the Interior Ministry troops and combat units within the Frontier Service of the FSB will essentially expand the range of their combat application.
The special task force groups, being "compact" structure-wise and on constant alert for immediate actions must have the ability to perform pre-emptive rapid airlifting and air-ground (air-sea) maneuvering in relation to the enemy's subversive and terrorist formations. Various destruction weapons and resources can be applied in a combat operation when fighting the STFs. The most maneuverable and quick response asset among those is combat aviation, in particular--SU-25 fighter aircraft, capable of making selective strikes. The most important thing is that upon receiving the target position data, this aircraft itself makes supplemental reconnaissance operations and then strikes out. However, its operational range is limited.
One of the irreplaceable means used to eliminate mobile small-sized subversive and terrorist groups (STG) are Mi-8 and Mi-24 attack helicopters. However, they unfortunately are not capable of performing full-scale search and reconnaissance operations against small-sized STGs located in settlements, forests, gorges and ravines. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity of creating new types of multipurpose helicopters equipped with all-weather, round-the-clock reconnaissance and target designation equipment. It is highly required that their armament capabilities and survivability level should be increased by adding the qualities possessed by battle helicopters and fighter helicopters.
To maintain the struggle against subversive and terrorist formations of the enemy it would be expedient to apply multiple mission (reconnaissance, electronic warfare) pilotless aircraft and lightweight off-aerodrome location aircraft ("mosquito aviation") capable of implementing a wide spectrum of missions. And when it is required to reveal and destroy the STF at the primary stage of their preparedness for actions, long-distance aircraft can be used as well--basically for hitting the airfields and units where the STFs are based.
Rocket troops and artillery units also possess highly effective weapons necessary for fighting the STFs. They primarily involve high-accuracy rocket systems, self-propelled artillery and multiple launch rocket systems. Nevertheless, to ensure more effective counteraction to subversive acts and terrorist attacks of the enemy the fighting potential of rocket troops and artillery units should be increased. This could be done both by increasing the numerical strength of rocket troops and artillery units in combined arms formations, and through qualitative improvement of artillery weapon systems, One of such ways is the creation of electronic-and-magnetic ammunition launchers and air-breathing shells for 122-mm howitzers for shooting within the range of up to 50-70 km, as well as guided missiles for 152-mm howitzers and 120-mm guns.
In addition to fire power weapons, countersabotage (antiterrorist) maneuvering could also involve all-arms reserves, army maneuverable groups, flame-throwing attack helicopter groups capable of advancing to the STF landing site within the shortest possible time. Skilful maneuvering will allow to grasp and keep the initiative in the struggle against the STFs, to upset their application plans, to build up efforts aimed at neutralizing their actions, to operate more actively in difficult situations.
While evaluating the fighting and maneuverable capabilities of the all-arms units and divisions, it should be noted that the existing organization and establishment, especially in battlefield operations, fails to entirely provide effective mission fulfillment in the struggle against the subversive and terrorist formations of the enemy. In particular, it is essential that the firing potential of the rifle battalion should be strengthened so that it could independently, in isolation from the main forces, fight the enemy's STFs. This can be achieved through the inclusion in its structure of the artillery and mortar batteries consisting of one 82-mm mortar launcher platoon, two 120-mm mortar launcher platoons and a separate self-propelled artillery platoon of 122-mm guns. Besides, it would be expedient to have a combat support company in the battalion. Such combat support company could include grenade launcher, flame, machine-gun and antiaircraft platoons, as well as a regular combat-engineer platoon. As far as shooting arms are concerned, it should be said that at this point infantry divisions have quite effective kinds of weapons.
So that a battalion could detect the enemy's STFs, it should have a well trained reconnaissance unit equipped with the most sophisticated technical devices capable of providing the commanders and firing divisions with the intelligence data. Besides, a regular air controller should be included in the battalion.
Snipers also tend to play a significant role in the struggle against the enemy's STFs. The tasks they can solve could be the following: they can prevent saboteurs from penetrating a military facility, destroy the emerging targets which can include snipers, radio operators, machine gunners, mortar gunners, grenadiers, flamethrower operators, sappers. Snipers can also be included in the enemy's subversive and terrorist formations; therefore the described conditions could also involve counter-sniper fighting.
As for counteracting the acts of electronic subversion, it should be said that their efficiency will depend on new radio electronic technologies development, in particular--on implementation of the large-scale radio electronic resource perfection program where significant attention should be given to the creation of comprehensive automated systems, including electronic intelligence and jamming devices, various adaptive systems self-adaptable to the modifying parameters of an electronic device being jammed, and the application of disposable jamming transmitters.